Saturday, March 31, 2007


Israelis wary of Arab peace plan.
By Martin Patience BBC News, Netanya.

Memories linger of Netanya's nightmare in March 2002. Almost five years ago to the day, Dovrat Sharabbi settled down with her grandparents to enjoy a Passover dinner.
As they were halfway through their meal news broke that there had been an explosion in their home town of Netanya, a 20-minute drive away.
A Palestinian suicide bomber had walked into the Park Hotel in the town detonating his explosives. Thirty people, mainly elderly, were killed in the attack.
In Israel there was outrage particularly as some of the victims were Holocaust survivors.
On that same day, Arab leaders met in Beirut and formally adopted a Saudi peace initiative, offering Israel full recognition if it withdrew from all the land occupied in 1967.
The Arabs always say that they will make peace, but it's only peace on paper
Netanya shopkeeper Rivin Sadian. The plan demanded the establishment of a Palestinian state and also a "just solution to the Palestinian refugee problem", based on people returning to their homes or the payment of appropriate compensation.
This week, the plan was reaffirmed at the Arab League summit held in the Saudi capital, Riyadh.
No trust
But for Dovrat - whose friend's father was killed in the Park Hotel blast - the period of five years has done little to change her views.
"I want to believe that it can happen, that if we withdrew to 1967 that there would be peace," she said, sitting on a grassy knoll overlooking Netanya's thin stretch of beach.
"But there is no trust here. I don't trust the Arabs to deliver even if we did withdraw."
Across the Israeli political spectrum there have been encouraging noises about the initiative - and not just from left-wing parties.
Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, leader of the centrist Kadima party, lauded the Arab peace move as "revolutionary" in Israeli press reports, although he stressed he did not accept it in its entirety.
Refugee question
The Israeli Housing Minister, Meir Sheetrit, told the BBC that he would be willing to go to Saudi Arabia today if allowed.
"I think we should break the ice," he said.
But for most Israelis, Palestinian refugees returning to land which is now inside Israel is a non-starter.
If all the refugees were to return to Israel, there would cease to be a Jewish majority in the Jewish state.

Parts of modern Netanya stand on ruins of pre-1948 village Um Khalid. Former Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom said that this single demand meant that there was nothing really to talk about.
"The Arabs should know that they should abandon their dream to destroy the state of Israel from inside," he said.
Some Israeli politicians and analysts, however, see the very fact the Saudi initiative was reaffirmed shows that there is now a marked difference in atmosphere.
Five years ago, the Palestinian uprising was at its height.
But last summer's conflict between Israel and Hezbollah changed the regional dynamics.
Israel and many of the Arab states - including Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan - worry about Iran's increasing influence in the region, particularly if it acquires nuclear weapons.
"Basically what the Saudis are telling the Iranians is that we beg to differ with you," said Aluf Benn, the diplomatic editor of the Israeli daily newspaper Haaretz.
"When the Iranians say that Israel has no place in the map, the Saudis are saying we think Israel, within different borders, does belong in the region."
But while there may be enthusiastic murmurings in government circles and elsewhere, people in Netanya seem more downbeat.
"The Arabs always say that they will make peace," said Rivin Sadian, 26, standing in front of his souvenir shop looking out for tourists.
"But it's only peace on paper; it's not peace for real."
Taxi-driver Samuel Coen, 35, was only slightly more optimistic.
"There cannot be real peace between us and the Arabs," he said.
"The best we can hope for is that we agree to live here and they agree to live over there."



Backstreet bookies thrive in Pakistan.
By Alastair Leithead BBC News, Lahore.

On a roof-top terrace high above Lahore, four men are seated with mobile phones scattered around them, the cricket playing on a TV set in the corner.

Many small bookmaker shops thrive in Lahore.
Different ring-tones bring in new bets - all the calls are recorded on tape, and one of the men notes down the amount pledged and the odds offered.
Hundreds of thousands of rupees are being staked on the West Indies versus New Zealand game in this illegal Pakistani betting shop.
One big black phone is left on speaker mode in the centre of the room - an open line to the boss who is setting the odds, and monitoring all his mobile operations across the city.
We had parked in a dark alley and been led up the stairs by the well-to-do men running one of thousands of small operations across Lahore.
Way of life
Betting may be illegal in Pakistan but it's big business, and modern mobile technology makes it almost impossible to crack down on.
The cricket World Cup is a good opportunity - they are betting on the result and spread and spot betting throughout each match.

I believe that the mafia killed him
Mr C Pakistani bookmaker.

There are different opinions on whether there was fixing in the Pakistan-Ireland match, when Pakistan were defeated knocked out of the World Cup at the group stage.
Cricket is a way of life here and passions were high, with anger at the team's poor performance countered by sadness at the death of the Pakistan Cricket coach, Bob Woolmer.
And betting is such a big money-earner that it's in the interests of the "Mr Bigs" to influence the outcome of matches - despite efforts by the International Cricket Council to crack down on it.
Match-fixing claims
Mr C, the man running the bookies' shop in Lahore, explains how it works: "They call me and say they want half a million Pakistan rupees on this ball or that over, and it if doesn't work out they have to pay us."
And like everyone here, Mr C has his own theory as to what happened to Woolmer.
"I believe that the mafia killed him, but we'll have to wait for the reports," he says.
"By mafia I mean it is spread over not just Pakistan and India, but everywhere, from Pakistan to India to Dubai, South Africa and even Britain - it's spread all over."
And even the man tipped by some to be in line for the job as the next Pakistan coach admits match fixing goes on.
"I can't say there is no match-fixing in cricket because there is," said Aqib Javed, currently a youth coach for the national team.
"When the team lost the game the fans were very angry and emotional and aggressive, but after Bob's murder things have changed and they are more sympathetic.
"It's all speculation, but you can't relate match-fixing with Bob's murder."



The Falkland Islands way.
By Brian Hanrahan BBC News, Port Stanley.

Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands 25 years ago, triggering a brief, but bitter war in which 655 Argentines and 255 British servicemen lost their lives. The BBC correspondent who famously said in 1982: "I counted them all out and I counted them all back," has been back to report on life there now.

Fishing and sheep farming are the main economic activities.
There is one question that Falkland islanders always get asked: "Why do you live here?"
It is not so much the weather or the landscape, bleak though both can be. It is the isolation.
The population is a whisker under 3,000 and they have none of the distractions most of the world takes for granted... no cinema and hardly any shops. They can watch the TV channel fed to the British base but have no station of their own.
It is a world where everyone knows everyone and the only social distractions are other people's lives.
Shades of green
Living in this social goldfish bowl, however, is not to everyone's taste.
I was being driven out of Stanley one morning which showed the islands at their best.
On one side the rock tumbles of the mountains slithering down from the clouds, on the other a sparkling ocean under a sky of purest, unpolluted blue.

We can now see more clearly what it was Britain went to war to preserve.
In between was a rainbow of greens. It seemed impossible that there could be so many shades, so many hues of such different intensity and they could all be the same colour.
Amid the small talk about the scenery, the young man who was driving suddenly told me how much he disliked the place - nothing to do, nowhere to go, nobody to meet - and that everybody knew too much about him.
He was off to England and could not wait to get out.
But my guess is he will be back.
Most young people leave the islands at 16 to finish their education but nearly all of them return once they have had a taste of the outside world.
Tourist trail
The lifestyle of the islands is distinctive and it is theirs. And however much it puzzles visitors, they want to keep it.

Take Debbie Summers who has come back to the islands with a degree in business studies.
On the jetty she meets tourists off the cruise ships wearing a brightly coloured knitted hat with woollen antlers bouncing up and down.
Debbie is an impressive businesswoman creating a new industry.
Cruise ships like to stop in at the Falklands.
She organises their day trips to see penguins, or sheep shearing, or war cemeteries, or just the neat rows of white-washed cottages straight out of an earlier age.
There were 6,000 trippers one day and it takes a lot of ingenuity to entertain them among just 3,000 islanders.
And it is bringing money into the islands.
'Easy bond'
Debbie's family left after the war.
She says then the Falklands were a very sombre place but once she had finished her education she could not wait to come back.

Major General Sir Jeremy Moore was the commander of the British Land Forces during the Falklands conflict
"People died for our system," she says.
They talk easily of the war here and their gratitude. This is no forgotten episode.
But it is not just the many memorials, or streets named after military leaders like Colonel H Jones or Major General Jeremy Moore. There is a very easy bond between the veterans who visit and the islanders.
Both share vivid memories and there is not anywhere else that British troops go back to old battlefields and find they are on home turf, being thanked for what they did by their own people.
And that brings me to the question that I am always asked: " Was it worth it?", as if somehow the accident of observing a war gave me a right to judge it.
But this trip has helped me put some things into perspective.
After the war the islanders were, understandably, gloomy.
They were grateful but also disgruntled about the way their lives had been messed up.
But now the pain caused by the fighting has passed and it is much easier to see what sort of society Britain went to war to protect.

A volunteer part-time force currently trains with the British Army. BritishArmy
Isolation once served as a shield to keep the world at bay but now it is more like a badge which shows the distinctiveness of life here and outsiders are welcome to share it, if it is to their taste.
That has encouraged an entrepreneurial spirit and set off a search for new businesses like tourism and mineral exploration.
It leaves a community which is happy, prosperous and part of the wider world but at the same time, keeping some distance from it.
The war was fought for political, not economic reasons, to protect a community whose origins, attitudes and aspirations are all British.
On the other side of the equation, after Iraq (twice), Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan, we as a country, have more experience of what it costs to use military force.
So was it worth it?
I suppose the answer depends on whether, knowing what we know now, we would do it again.

From Our Own Correspondent was broadcast on Saturday, 31 March, 2007 at 1130 BST on BBC Radio 4. Please check the programme schedules for World Service transmission times.
Falklands War veterans talk to Timewatch in Remember the Galahad at 2100BST on Monday 2 April on BBC Two.



The crew has been held captive for more than a week. Legal action is being taken against 15 Royal Navy personnel held captive by Iran for "entering Iranian waters", a senior Iranian diplomat has said.
Gholamreza Ansari, Iran's ambassador to Moscow, said "legal process" had started but denied reports which quoted him saying the group may face trial.
The UK government says the captives were seized in Iraqi waters and is demanding their "immediate" return.
Foreign Secretary Margaret Beckett has sent a written response to Iran.
Iran's official IRNA news agency earlier carried a report saying the envoy had told Russian television that legal moves against the 15 had already started and that there was a possibility they could stand trial.
But the agency later quoted Mr Ansari saying the television channel had made a "translation mistake" when quoting him saying the group could face charges and a trial.
Britain denies Iran's claims that the UK crew was in its waters when seized on 23 March.
A Foreign Office spokeswoman said: "Our position has not changed. We have made it clear that they were inside Iraqi waters and we want them returned immediately."

1 Crew boards merchant ship 1.7NM inside Iraqi waters
2 HMS Cornwall was south-east of this, and inside Iraqi waters
3 Iran tells UK that merchant ship was at a different point, still within Iraqi water
4 After UK points this out, Iran provides alternative position, now within Iranian waters.

Mrs Beckett said she had replied to a letter from the Iranian government, but no detail of the contents was given.
The Iranian letter had not suggested Tehran was looking for a solution to "this difficult situation" and the fact that it was a holiday period in Iran was "not too helpful", she added.
Speaking later at a European Union meeting in the German city of Bremen, Mrs Beckett stressed the British government wanted the situation resolved quickly.
"What we want is a way out of it - we want it peacefully and we want it as soon as possible.
"We would like to be told where our personnel are - we'd like to be given access to them, but we want it resolved."
She said she was "concerned" about claims by Mr Ansari that the British personnel could face legal action.
"I don't think it's helpful to Iran, I don't think it's helpful to our detainees - I think that is not the tone really that I would wish anyone to strike," she added.
Earlier, US state department spokesman Sean McCormack rejected suggestions that a swap could be made for five Iranians captured in Iraq by US forces in January.
The Iranians, believed to be members of the Revolutionary Guard, were taken in a raid in the city of Irbil, along with equipment which the Americans say shows clear Iranian links to networks supplying Iraqi insurgents with technology and weapons.
US officials have condemned Iran's actions over the 15 Navy personnel and publicly supported the UK.
Mr McCormack said: "The international community is not going to stand for the Iranian government trying to use this issue to distract the rest of the world from the situation in which Iran finds itself vis-a-vis its nuclear programme."
Prime Minister Tony Blair has criticised Iran for "parading" the UK crew on television in a way which would only "enhance people's sense of disgust".
Letter Sacri
1 Royal Navy crew stray 0.5km inside Iranian waters
2 Iran gives set of co-ordinates to back up their claims
3 According to seized GPS equipment, the Royal Navy crew had previously entered Iranian waters at several other points
4 Iran informs Britain of the position where the crew were seized, inside Iranian waters.

But a former Iranian ambassador to the United Nations, Said Rajai Khorasani, told BBC Radio 4's Today programme Mr Blair had been too "authoritative" in his approach.
He added: "He could have said for instance, 'Well, even if there is possibly a mistake, in the light of good relations between the two countries, I hope that you will facilitate their release.'
"I mean that's a more friendly - let's say phraseology - than dictating, you know, immediately and unconditionally, and so on and so forth."
In what appeared to be an edited broadcast on an Iranian channel on Friday, captured sailor Nathan Thomas Summers said: "I would like to apologise for entering your waters without permission."
He was shown alongside two colleagues, one of whom was Leading Seaman Faye Turney, from Shropshire, who had been broadcast apologising to Iran earlier in the week.
A letter, allegedly from LS Turney, was released on Friday in which she said she had been "sacrificed" to UK and US government policy.

They will have to be released by diplomatic means and I believe that this will happen
Neil Whittaker, Lancashire, UK
Send us your comments

European Union foreign ministers, meeting in Bremen, Germany, called for "the immediate and unconditional release" of the sailors and expressed "unconditional support" for Britain's position.
The BBC has been able to confirm the names of six of the 15 captured sailors and marines.
Along with LS Turney and Nathan Summers, who is from Cornwall, they are Paul Barton from Southport, Danny Masterton from Ayrshire, Joe Tindall from south London and Adam Sperry from Leicester.
The Britons, based on HMS Cornwall, were seized by Revolutionary Guards as they returned from searching a vessel in the northern Gulf.



UK to assist in Woolmer inquiry

Detectives believe Mr Woolmer knew his killer or killers. Police in Jamaica investigating the murder of Pakistan cricket coach Bob Woolmer at the World Cup have accepted an offer of help from UK police.
Officers from Scotland Yard will fly out next week, Jamaican deputy police chief Mark Shields told the BBC.
Mr Woolmer was found strangled in his hotel room on 18 March, the day after Pakistan's surprise defeat to Ireland.
Pakistan captain Inzamam ul-Haq has denied his team was guilty of match-fixing in the West Indies.
Police say they do not yet have any suspects in the case and have appealed for witnesses to come forward.
Speaking for the first time since Mr Woolmer's murder, Inzamam said that none of his team mates were involved in the criminal investigations into the death.
He described the last two weeks as the worst in his life and he said he had been deeply hurt by allegations in the Pakistan press about match-fixing.
He blamed the defeat to Ireland on a bad pitch.
The Pakistan Cricket Board is to hold a public memorial service for Mr Woolmer in Lahore's Sacred Heart Cathedral on Sunday while a second public memorial service will later be held in Cape Town, South Africa, where Mr Woolmer had lived with his family.
Complex case
Mr Shields said the aim of the small team of Scotland Yard detectives would be to review the investigation.

Mr Shields has urged visitors to Mr Woolmer's hotel to contact police
They will also look at scientific evidence, work with the Woolmer family and help guide the Jamaican force through what has become a complex case.
Scotland Yard had offered its help from the beginning of the investigation.
That offer was accepted after a letter from the Jamaican government.
Reports that police were seeking three Pakistani men, said to have fled the Caribbean on the day of the murder, have been denied by the Jamaican force.
Police are still reviewing CCTV footage from the hotel and examining the hard drive of Mr Woolmer's computer.
Detectives believe Mr Woolmer probably knew his killer - or killers - as there were no signs of forced entry into his room and none of his belongings had been stolen.



Morgan Tsvangirai's injuries were clear to see after the beating. Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe has told supporters that opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was attacked earlier this month - and deserved the beating.
At a Zanu-PF party meeting in Harare, he said Mr Tsvangirai was clearly told not to attend a banned rally.
Inside the meeting, Mr Mugabe called on Zanu-PF members to maintain party unity as he sought a new term as leader.
The meeting is to decide whether Mr Mugabe should stand in presidential elections due next year.
He was beaten but he asked for it
President Robert MugabeHe is under increasing pressure from Zanu-PF factions to stand down to end the political and economic crisis.
Mr Mugabe, who is 83, has made it clear he wants to remain in office.
No complaints
Arriving at the Harare conference, Mr Mugabe said he had discussed Mr Tsvangirai's injuries with fellow southern African leaders at a summit in Tanzania on Thursday.
"Yes, I told them he was beaten but he asked for it," AFP news agency quoted Mr Mugabe as saying.
"We got full backing, not even one [other African leader] criticised our actions."
Mr Tsvangirai spent several days in hospital and many other supporters were badly hurt when MDC activists were beaten after being arrested at the rally.
The assaults provoked international condemnation of Mr Mugabe's rule in Zimbabwe, which he has led since independence in 1980.
Sanctions blamed
At Thursday's summit, southern African leaders agreed that South African President Thabo Mbeki should try to promote political dialogue inside Zimbabwe.

The problem with these African leaders is that they fear Mugabe and employ a quiet diplomacy
Henry, Harare
Send us your comments
The leaders expressed solidarity with Mr Mugabe, urged western countries to lift sanctions and called on the UK to pay for land reform.
The European Union and US sanctions are a travel ban and an assets freeze on Mr Mugabe and his close allies, yet Mr Mugabe blames them for causing Zimbabwe's economic woes.
The opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is disappointed with the outcome of the meeting - it says the problems are Mr Mugabe's economic mismanagement and human rights abuses.
The secretary general of one MDC faction, Tendai Biti, said it did not want dialogue with Mr Mugabe but agreed to talk to other Zanu-PF leaders.
He also pointed out that Mr Mbeki had previously been tasked with ending Zimbabwe's crisis, to little effect.
Poor harvest
BBC Southern Africa correspondent Peter Biles say Mr Mugabe has never looked as isolated as he is at present.
In the knowledge that elections are due a year from now, there is intense lobbying going on within Zanu-PF, our correspondent says.

Summit disappoints critics
Profile: Emmerson Mnangagwa
Profile: The Mujuru couple
President Mugabe at first suggested extending his term in office until 2010 but he later said the elections could be held as scheduled - and said he could stand himself.
The 245 members of his party's Central Committee are to decide whether the elections should be postponed.
Two top Zanu-PF power-brokers are believed to want to contest the elections instead of Mr Mugabe.
They are former armed forces commander Solomon Mujuru - or his wife Joyce, Zimbabwe vice-president - and former Security Minister Emmerson Mnangagwa.
But it is not clear if either will stand up and directly challenge Mr Mugabe at the meeting.
Zimbabwe's economy is in meltdown, with inflation of 1,700% and widespread poverty and unemployment.
On Thursday, UN humanitarian director Rashid Khalikov said that 1.4 million Zimbabweans would need food aid this year, as harvests were only due to meet one-third of the country's requirements.



The number of wounded and killed is unknown. The Somali capital Mogadishu is being wracked by the worst fighting in 15 years, with dozens killed and thousands fleeing the violence, aid agencies say.
Fighting resumed on Saturday for the third day, since Somali and Ethiopian troops launched an offensive against Islamist insurgents.
Ethiopia said it had killed 200 rebels in the course of the operation.
But civilians said the city was being shelled indiscriminately, and that bodies were lying in the streets.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said the fighting was the heaviest in Mogadishu in 15 years, since the aftermath of the overthrow of Siad Barre in 1991.
I saw two of my neighbours get killed - I'm not going to stay here anymore
Mohamed Deq Abukar AroniMogadishu resident
Since then the country has been torn by constant fighting. A rare six months of order imposed by the Islamists ended when they were ousted by Ethiopian troops in December.
One resident said that, despite the capital's violent past, he had never been forced to leave, until now.
"Today I'm fleeing because shells are hitting residential areas indiscriminately," said Mohamed Deq Abukar Aroni, carrying two mattresses on his head, while his children carried belongings in paper bags.
"I saw two of my neighbours get killed. I'm not going to stay here anymore," he told the Associated Press.
Helicopter hit
A doctor at Alhayat Hospital said the building had come under mortar fire, and two staff had been wounded.
"Since early this morning I have been hiding here from the mortar shells so I can't help rescue people. I urge the two sides to respect health facilities," Dr Mohamed Dhere told AP on Friday.

Dozens of people died in heavy fighting on Thursday
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for an immediate end to the fighting, saying in a statement he was "particularly concerned about the use of air strikes and the introduction of tanks and heavy artillery into densely populated parts of the city".
Ethiopia's information ministry said 200 members of the Union of Islamic Courts had been killed in the two-day offensive, but there was no independent confirmation of this.
Witnesses described how two Ethiopian helicopters fired on a rebel stronghold on Friday, before one of them was hit by an anti-aircraft missile.
"Smoke billowed from the cabin and it turned towards the ocean," Swiss journalist Eugen Sorg told Reuters.
"It crashed at the south end of the airport runway."
A spokesman for Ugandan troops, in Somalia as part of an African Union (AU) peacekeeping force, said they had recovered the bodies of two crew.
'Terrorist links'
Some 1,700 Ugandan troops are in Mogadishu as the advance party of an 8,000-strong AU force, which is supposed to replace the Ethiopian troops as they gradually withdraw.
Somalia's Interim Prime Minister Mohammed Ali Ghedi said the operation would continue in order to restore stability to Mogadishu.
"There are some insurgents in the city who have links with international terrorists and are fighting against the government and the people of Somalia," Mr Ghedi told the BBC Network Africa from the Arab League summit.
He said plans for the national reconciliation conference in April were under way and they have invited moderate Islamic scholars to the conference.



Breastfeeding is the 'best option' for mothers in developing countries. Exclusively breastfeeding until a baby is six-months old can significantly reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission, an African study says.
The South African researchers compared solely breastfed babies with those also given formula or solid foods.
They say breastfeeding carries a low transmission risk, but protects against potentially fatal conditions such as diarrhoea and pneumonia.
They say it is the best option for most women in the developing world.
Breastfeeding remains a key intervention to reduce mortality
Professor Hoosen Coovadia, researcher
In the developed world, the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission has been cut from 25% to under 2% because of the use of antiretroviral therapies, exclusive formula feeding and good healthcare support.
But these benefits are often unavailable in the developing world.
There, World Health Organization (WHO) guidance says HIV positive women who can afford to use formula, and who have the facilities they need to do so - such as a fire to heat water with - should do so.
But the researchers, from the Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, say this is not the case for the majority of women in developing countries.
For this reason, and because exclusively breastfeeding protects against other diseases, they suggest it is the best option.
It is also associated with fewer breast health problems such as mastitis and breast abscesses, both of which can increase the amount of the HIV virus in the mother's breast milk.
The research, funded by the UK's Wellcome Trust, found that there was a 4% risk of postnatal transmission to infants who were just fed on breast milk between the age of six weeks and six months.
Infants who received formula milk or animal milk in addition to breast milk were nearly twice as likely to be infected as infants who received breast milk only.
And those given solids in addition to breast milk were almost 11 times more likely to acquire infection.
It is thought that this higher risk is due to the larger, more complex proteins found in solid foods which may lead to greater damage to the lining of the stomach, allowing the virus to pass through the gut wall.
Professor Hoosen Coovadia, of the Africa Centre, said: "The question of whether or not to breastfeed is not a straightforward one.
"We know that breastfeeding carries with it a risk of transmitting HIV infection from mother to child, but breastfeeding remains a key intervention to reduce mortality.
"In many areas of Africa where poverty is endemic, replacement feed, such as formula milk or animal milk, is expensive and cannot act as a complete substitute.
"The key is to find ways of making breastfeeding safe."
Writing in the Lancet, Wendy Holmes of the Centre for International Health in Melbourne and Felicity Savage of the equivalent institution in London say the research is a "breakthrough".
"It provides crucial confirmatory evidence that when HIV-positive mothers breastfeed exclusively, their babies have only a low risk of infection with HIV.
"This risk is lower that that in babies who receive other food or liquids in addition to breast milk before six months."
Drs Holmes and Savage added: "The results emphasise that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for all mothers and babies could prevent much paediatric HIV infection as well as deaths from other causes."



Internal ramps were used to push the stones into place, Houdin says. A French architect claims to have solved the mystery of how Egypt's Great Pyramid was built.
Jean-Pierre Houdin said the 4,500-year-old pyramid, just outside Cairo, was built using an inner ramp to lift the massive stones into place.
Other theories contend that the three million stones - each 2.5 tons - were pushed into place using external ramps.
Mr Houdin studied the problem for eight years and used a computer model to illustrate how he thought it was done.
"This is better than the other theories, because it is the only theory that works," said Mr Houdin as he unveiled his theory with a 3D computer simulation.
He believes workers used an outer ramp to build the first 43 metres (47 yards) then constructed an inner ramp to carry stones to the apex of the 137m pyramid.
The pyramid was built to house the tomb of Pharaoh Khufu, also known as Cheops.
The Grand Gallery inside the pyramid, another source of mystery for Egyptologists, housed a giant counter-weight used to hoist five 60 ton granite beams into position above the King's Chamber.

Internal counterweights also helped move the massive stones. "This goes against both main existing theories," Egyptologist Bob Brier told Reuters news agency after Mr Houdin explained his hypothesis.
"I've been teaching them myself for 20 years but deep down I know they're wrong."
Mr Houdin said that an outer ramp all the way to the top of the pyramid would have blocked sight lines and left little room to work, while a long, frontal ramp would have used up too much stone.
Further confusing matters, there is little evidence left of external ramps at the site of the Great Pyramid.
Mr Houdin said the pyramid could have been built by 4,000 people using his technique instead of 100,000, as postulated by other theorists.
The architect is now assembling a team to verify his theory on site using radars and other non-invasive means.



Mr Mugabe has made it clear he wants another term in office. Zimbabwe's ruling Zanu-PF party has endorsed President Robert Mugabe as its candidate for the 2008 election.
Mr Mugabe, 83, has been in power since independence from Britain in 1980.
Correspondents say the move is a major setback for two party factions that wanted him to stand down in order to end the political and economic crisis.
The UN has warned that many people are facing starvation, and recent months have seen a harsh police campaign against opposition demonstrations.
The BBC's southern Africa correspondent Peter Biles says Mr Mugabe's critics within the party believe his leadership is deeply damaging and, with the economy now out of control, that he should step down.
We can never entertain... a party that is walking the road of terrorism
Mr Mugabe speaking of the MDC

The opposition group, Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), says it is appalled at the latest news - and there is likely to be deep disquiet across southern Africa, our correspondent says.
The US was quick to criticise Mr Mugabe's selection as a candidate.
"It's sad, it's outrageous and certainly we hope better for the Zimbabwean people," said state department spokesman Sean McCormack.
More than 80% of Zimbabweans are living in poverty, with chronic unemployment and inflation running at more than 1,700% - the highest in the world.
'Hit squads'
"The candidate for the party in 2008 will be the president himself. He was endorsed by the central committee," party spokesman Nathan Shamuyarira said after a meeting in Harare.

Morgan Tsvangirai says he was badly beaten in police custody. Parliamentary elections, scheduled for 2010, will be brought forward by two years to coincide with the presidential poll, he added.
Earlier, Mr Mugabe urged Zanu-PF members to stay united in the face of international and domestic opposition to his rule.
He branded the MDC as "violent", and said: "We can never entertain... a party that is walking the road of terrorism. We will not allow that in Zimbabwe."
However, MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai says there has been a sharp escalation in violence against activists, with Mr Mugabe now using "hit squads" to crack down on group members.
Scores of activists were arrested and allegedly assaulted after police broke up a rally earlier this month. The police accuse the MDC of starting the violence.
Sanctions threat
On Thursday, an emergency southern African summit gave its public backing to Mr Mugabe despite international criticism over the crackdown on opposition activists.
The leaders, meeting in Tanzania, agreed that South African President Thabo Mbeki should try to promote political dialogue inside Zimbabwe.
They expressed solidarity with Mr Mugabe, urging Western countries to lift sanctions and also called on the UK to pay for land reform.
The UK and US governments are calling for sanctions beyond the current travel ban and assets freeze on senior officials.


Friday, March 30, 2007


Summit disappoints Mugabe critics.
By Peter Greste BBC News, Dar es Salaam.

There was no public rebuke for Mr Mugabe. Before the summit of 14 of southern Africa's leaders opened, Zimbabwe's critics had hoped that at the very least Robert Mugabe would get a private dressing-down as well as a few pointed public rebukes.
But when he left smiling for reporters it was clear that his colleagues had done nothing of the sort.
We still do not know what transpired behind the hotel's gilded doors, but the final communiqué gave no sense of urgency or pressure.
What it did offer was South Africa's President, Thabo Mbeki, as a facilitator for talks between Zimbabwe's opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) and President Mugabe's government.
The summit chairman, Tanzania's President Jakaya Kikwete, said that that decision alone was a breakthrough.
The communiqué was also significant for what it left out.
He described it as a landmark and to be fair, it is a departure from the deeply-held principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of member states here.
The final communiqué also called for a study group to look at Zimbabwe's plunging economy and come up with ways to help. It urged the West to end economic sanctions and engage diplomatically.
But the communiqué was also significant for what it left out.
It said nothing about timelines or dates, it gave no benchmarks for progress and said nothing about what might happen if Mr Mbeki's talks fail.
Regional strife
Yet the urgency is real. Zimbabwe's economy has already plunged through the floor, with inflation now over 1,700% and eight out of 10 workers without a job.
The government security services have taken to beating opposition supporters and accusing MDC activists of fire-bombing police stations and preparing for guerrilla war.
In that environment it is hard to see what middle ground there might be for Mr Mbeki's negotiations, but it might all be academic if he does not move fast.
Few people believe Zimbabwe is going to plunge into civil war next week or next month, but it is heading in that direction.
Without urgent and dramatic action, it is not just Zimbabwe that is in danger of slipping into conflict.
The country's neighbours, South Africa chief amongst them, would probably have to deal with a flood of impoverished and desperate refugees, and any violence could well follow close behind.
So self-interest alone would seem to inspire more robust action.
Yet the region's leaders have decided that the greater priority is to stick together rather than to risk internal dissent.
Overall, these measures will disappoint those who had hoped to see southern African leaders discipline Robert Mugabe for the recent political crackdown on opposition protests.
It also defied those who suggested that for their own sakes the 13 leaders would ramp up their efforts to avoid the regional crisis that civil war would inevitably provoke.



A quarter of UK adults say they have had their identity stolen or know a victim of ID fraud, Which? magazine has said.
Three BBC News website readers explain what happened to them when their ID was stolen.

Vikki Anderson suffered after having her bag stolen
Laura McDonald's old address came back to haunt her
Nasir Ahmed fell for a telephone ID scam

Vikki Anderson, 29, bank worker from Uxbridge
When Vikki Anderson had her handbag stolen last July, she knew she was in trouble.
She was moving home and her passport and key personal documents were in the stolen bag.
"I cancelled everything that day, including my passport and reported the theft to the police. But I was still worried about the possibility of ID theft."
Vikki's nervousness was justified when she received a call from a car loan broker asking her when she would like her new loan repayments to start.
Vikki had not bought a car.
I still fear that the fraudsters will strike again, even though I have done everything I can to stop it from happening
Vikki Anderson
"I told them that whoever had applied for the loan was not me and decided to check my credit record immediately."
Vikki found that a fraudster had used the stolen ID to obtain car loans worth more than £20,000 in her name.
Vikki also found that two direct debits had been set up on her bank account without her knowledge.
After a month, the loan company concluded that a fraud had taken place and told Vikki that she would not be liable for the loan.
"The fraudsters have caused a serious amount of damage.
"I was recently turned down for a credit card because my credit rating has been damaged."
Vikki is trying to get the two major credit reference agencies, Experian and Equifax, to amend her credit record.
"The whole process is not something I would want to repeat, I have spent hundreds of hours trying to sort everything.
"I still fear that the fraudsters will strike again, even though I have done everything I can to stop it from happening."
However, according to Vikki, one good thing has come of the experience:
"The day that the fraud emerged my boyfriend bought me a shredder which we now use."

Laura McDonald, 40, an accounts administrator from Edinburgh
Laura McDonald suffered four months of stress and heartache after a fraudster stole her ID.
"The first I knew of what was going on was when a letter from a debt collector landed on my doormat."
The debt collector was chasing up a recent £235 debt from a mail order company.
I was recently refused credit at a High Street retailer, I am sure the fraudulent mail order and book club debts are to blame
Laura McDonald
But the debt related to an address that Laura had left more than four years ago.
Laura had fallen victim to a not too sophisticated but still highly-effective fraud.
"The housing association had left my nameplate up outside my old address. The fraudster had simply seen my name and decided to obtain goods using it."
Laura soon discovered that the mail order debt wasn't the only cloud on the horizon.
"My name was used to obtain books from a book club and I am currently dealing with that debt."
In order to prove that she wasn't the person responsible, Laura has had to make dozens of phone calls and send a copy of her birth certificate and utility bills to debt collectors and credit reference agencies.
Unfortunately, Laura has found that her credit rating has been hit by the fraud.
" I was recently refused credit at a High Street retailer, I am sure the fraudulent mail order and book club debts are to blame.
"I am currently trying to get the credit reference agency to correct my file."
Laura reported the fraud to the police and was surprised at their response.
"They told me that they would not investigate because I am not the victim of the crime, it is up to the mail order firm and book club to complain.
"What the law does not realise is that I am a victim. I have spent at least a week sorting this mess out and the whole experience has been very stressful indeed."

Nasir Ahmed, 43, IT engineer from London
Nasir Ahmed fell for an increasingly common type of ID fraud.
It started in September 2004 when he received a call at home apparently from his bank.
The caller told Nasir that someone was trying to carry out a fraudulent transaction on his account and that to stop it they needed to confirm his personal details.
Where does a person go for help, the police said it was a matter between me and the credit card company
Nasir Ahmed
Eager to fight the fraudsters, Nasir confirmed to the caller his name, address, date of birth, place of birth - everything, in short, needed to perpetrate a sophisticated ID fraud.
Nasir heard nothing for a month, then on opening his credit card statement he found that more than £11,000 had been taken, mostly to buy flight tickets and travellers cheques.
"It was a real shock and I called my credit card company straight away who agreed to freeze my account and investigate.
"It took them three months to sort this out and credit the account. All that time I worried that they would say that they thought it was me who had spent the money, how would I find £11,000?
"Where does a person go for help? The police said it was a matter between me and the credit card company."
Nasir was struck by the professional nature of the fraud.
"The initial call was very plausible and they even changed my account details, including the password with the intention of carrying on with the fraud.
"I urge people not to disclose any personal details over the phone."



Stores in the US, UK, Canada, Ireland and Puerto Rico are affected. Hackers have stolen information from at least 45.7 million payment cards used by customers of US retailer TJX, which owns TJ Maxx, and UK outlet TKMaxx.
In a statement to US watchdogs the firm said it did not know the full extent of the theft and its effect on customers.
TJX added that the security breach may also have involved TKMaxx customers in the UK and Ireland.
But the company added that at least three-quarters of the affected cards had expired or data had been masked.
Question marks
The company also told the BBC that 100 files were moved from its UK computer system in 2003, and two files were later stolen.


18 December 2006 - TJX discovers the breach in security
Within days it hires outside investigators and notifies US federal authorities
19 January 2007 - Publicly admits the problem, but not the full extent
29 January 2007 - Reveals the full nature of the breach
Says data was first hacked in July 2005
Stolen bank card details date back to December 2002

However, a spokesperson admitted that the firm may never know what was in those files.
"We don't know what was in those files - the technology the hacker used prevents TJX from knowing, and also the fact that TJX system routinely deletes files," the spokesperson added.
The data was accessed on TJX's systems in Watford, Hertfordshire, and Massachusetts over a 16-month period from July 2005 and covers transactions made by credit and debit card dating as far back as December 2002.
Sandra Quinn from the Association of Payment Clearing Services (Apacs) told the BBC there had been a "massive" compromise of security - on a scale not seen before.
However, she said that that for most people, the card details stolen would no longer be relevant.
"If they were doing transactions with TK Maxx between those dates they will generally now have a brand new credit or debit card in their wallet, so they can be sure that it will be the old details of their card that has been compromised, not their current card."
Customers who discovered they had been victims of fraud, would be able to get money back from their banks, she added.
Chip and pin

We are deeply concerned about this event and the difficulties it may cause our customers
Ben Cammarata, TJX

The company, which discovered the problem three months ago and reported it two months ago, said that a lot of questions remained about the attack.
"There is a lot of information we don't know, and may never be able to know, which is why this investigation has been so laborious," spokeswoman Sherry Lang said.
In its filing to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) the group said it believed "the intruder had access to the decryption tool for the encryption software utilized by TJX".
It also admitted it did not know who, or how many people, were behind the attack, or whether there had been one breach or many.
The papers also said that a further 455,000 customers who returned merchandise without receipts had personal data stolen - including driver's licence numbers.
However, the firm does not believe return customers at its UK stores were affected - or that chip and pin data in the UK was accessed as none is stored on the systems in Watford.
The company warned many of its operations could be affected.
Hackers managed to access information from its TJ Maxx, Marshalls and HomeGoods shops in the US and Puerto Rico, Bob's Stores in the US, and Winners and HomeSense shops in Canada.
Ben Cammarata, TJX chairman and acting chief executive, urged customers to check their credit and debit cards statements and any other account information for unauthorised use.
"We are deeply concerned about this event and the difficulties it may cause our customers," he added.
"Since discovering the crime, we have been working diligently to further protect our customers and strengthen the security of our computer systems."



Helicopter gunships have been used in a security crackdown. A helicopter in Somali capital has been shot down, as Ethiopian and Somali government troops battle to clear insurgents from Mogadishu.
"The helicopter looked like a ball of smoke and fire before crashing," Ruqiya Shafi Muhyadin told AP news agency as it crashed in suburb near the airport.
Prime Minister Mohammed Ali Ghedi insists the operation will continue as it is aimed at restoring stability.
Dozens of people died in heavy fighting on Thursday, ending a six-day truce.
Ethiopian helicopter gunship and tanks were deployed against the insurgents.
Elders of the Hawiye clan - the largest in Mogadishu - brokered a ceasefire with Ethiopian troops after heavy fighting last week, but Ethiopia denies any agreement.
Pro-government forces are reported to be battling the insurgents at close quarters near Mogadishu's main football stadium.
Dark smoke rose above the stadium, reports the AFP news agency.

Dozens of people died in heavy fighting on Thursday.
"We barely slept last night. The sky was lit up by shelling all night," said Mr Jamah.
"There are a lot of wounded, but there is no way to take them to the hospitals due to the fighting on the roads."
But Mr Ghedi said the media had exaggerated the scale of the fighting and also denied that his government was unpopular in Mogadishu.
"There are some insurgents in the city who have links with international terrorists and are fighting against the government and the people of Somalia - we are attacking their positions," Mr Ghedi told the BBC Network Africa programme by telephone from Saudi Arabia, where he is attending the Arab League summit.
On Thursday, crowds of people dragged bodies in uniform through the streets - it is not clear whether they belonged to Ethiopian or Somali soldiers.
Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi told parliament that two-thirds of its troops have left Somalia and the remaining soldiers will leave in consultation with the African Union.
Ethiopian troops helped install the interim government last December, replacing the Islamists who had governed the city for six months.
Some 1,700 Ugandan troops are in Mogadishu as the advance party of an 8,000 strong AU force.
Mr Ghedi also said that plans for the national reconciliation conference in April were underway and they have invited moderate Islamic scholars for the conference.
"Those who denounce violence and recognise the transitional federal charter for Somalia are welcome for the conference," he said.
Western governments have called on President Abdullahi Yusuf's government to involve moderate leaders of the ousted Union of Islamic Courts in the national reconciliation conference that will be held in Mogadishu.



Sixty-six children were killed in eastern Uganda during an army operation against suspected cattle rustlers, UK charity Save the Children says.
They were shot by soldiers, run over by armoured vehicles or crushed by stampeding animals last month.
The aid group said it had not found physical evidence of the alleged deaths in Karamoja, but had consistent reports after interviewing some 200 people.
The army denied the allegations, saying only adults were killed in the raids.
The BBC's Sarah Grainger in Uganda says there has been an increase in violence in Karamoja since the army began its disarmament programme in May last year.
"I saw many children killed, including my own son," one woman in Kaputh village near Kothido town told the BBC.
I ran away like many people and when I came back both of my young sons were missing
"He was with the livestock, trying to untie them so they could escape the firing. But he got crushed by the animals as they tried to run away."
Other villagers said the raid began at 0800 on 12 February.
A village elder greeted the army forces thinking they were carrying out a disarmament exercise, but was shot dead.
"I ran away like many people and when I came back both of my young sons were missing. Up till now I cannot find them so I think they were killed," another man said.
Army spokesman in Karamoja Lieutenant Henry Obbo said a five-day disarmament exercise had begun in the area on 10 February.
But when some warriors resisted the operation they opened fire on the army.
He said 52 warriors and four soldiers were killed in the incident, but no children were involved.
Save the Children has called for an independent investigation into the events at Kaputh.
"Reports of children being killed in indiscriminate, illegal and inhumane ways is absolutely devastating. Such allegations must be fully investigated and those involved brought to account," Save the Children's Valter Tinderholt said, Reuters news agency reports.



Profile: The Mujuru couple
By Joseph Winter BBC News.

Solomon Mujuru is a former army chief, often seen as Zimbabwe's "king-maker".

Joyce "Spillblood" Mujuru claims to have shot down a helicopter with a machine gunBut after spending more than a decade wielding power from the shadows, he may be about to emerge once more into public life - possibly as president, or maybe as "first man".
His wife, Joyce Mujuru, is vice-president - the first woman to hold such a high-ranking role in Zimbabwe.
If Mr Mujuru wants to combine power with relative anonymity, he may opt to back his wife for the top job - a scenario which many people would interpret as him pulling the real strings.
But Mrs Mujuru has - wisely - denied having any presidential ambitions.
Solomon Mujuru was the director of Robert Mugabe's guerrilla forces during the 1970s war of independence, which ended white minority rule.
Using his "nom de guerre", Rex Nhongo, he is also said to have played a key role in Mr Mugabe's rise to the top of the Zanu party.
Following independence, he carried on doing pretty much the same job - as army chief, becoming a general.
He was also elected MP for the north-eastern Chikomba constituency, before leaving public life in 1995 to concentrate on his business interests.
But he has always kept his senior role in the ruling Zanu-PF party, where the real power resides.
This could give him some say in how and when Mr Mugabe leaves office.
But despite his long and close ties to Mr Mugabe, he reportedly over-stepped the mark in recent days, meeting the US and UK ambassadors to Zimbabwe.
Even worse treachery - in Mr Mugabe's eyes - would be confirmation of reports that Mr Mujuru had met opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai, possible to discuss a government of national unity for the post-Mugabe era.
Mr Mugabe has always portrayed himself as still fighting the colonial struggle - against the west.
He was widely believed to be referring to Mr Mujuru when he said there had been "an insidious dimension where ambitious leaders have been cutting deals with the British and Americans".
"The whole succession debate has given imperialism hope for re-entry. Since when have the British, the Americans, been friends of Zanu-PF?" he asked.
This was a pretty severe put-down for the Mujurus, who come from the same Zezuru branch of Zimbabwe's majority Shona group as Mr Mugabe.
It might suit Mr Mujuru to remain behind the scenes.
"He leads a very private life," one Zanu-PF insider told the BBC News website.
There are very few photos of him around.
Minister in education
Mrs Mujuru, 51, on the other hand, has remained in cabinet ever since 1980, when she was its youngest member.
She left school at the age of 18 to join the war of independence and adopted the name Teurai Ropa (Spill Blood), before marrying Solomon Mujuru in 1977.

Solomon Mujuru reportedly helped Robert Mugabe become party leader. She claims to have shot down a Rhodesian helicopter with the machine-gun of a dying comrade and was later promoted to commander.
After spending her youth fighting the war, she obtained secondary school qualifications and a degree while in government.
Before becoming vice-president, she was best known for blocking a bid to set up Zimbabwe's first mobile phone network in the early 1990s.
This was seen as not only a money-earner but a threat to the government's control of information.
As information minister, she managed to thwart Econet long enough for Telecel, part-owned by her husband, to set up.
She was also one of the biggest beneficiaries of a scheme set up to pay compensation to those injured during the war of independence.
The scheme paid out huge amounts of public money - one of the sparks for Zimbabwe's subsequent economic collapse.
Business interests
The Mujurus are accused of taking over at least one of the farms seized from their white owners in recent years.
Guy Watson-Smith has taken Mr Mujuru to court to seek compensation after his farm was invaded by ruling party supporters.
He says the famous couple are living on the 3,500-acre Alamein farm, 45 miles south of Harare.
He says the infrastructure alone was worth some $2.5m.
He won a court order in December 2001 but is still trying to get either the money or the farm.
Emmerson Mnangagwa is the other man seen as a possible Zanu-PF successor to Mr Mugabe.
He and the Mujurus have been business, as well as political, rivals for more than a decade after Mr Mnangagwa blocked Mr Mujuru's bid to take over the huge Zimasco chrome smelting operation.
Mr Mujuru is also a share-holder in the River Ranch diamond mine.



Profile: Emmerson Mnangagwa.
By Joseph Winter BBC News.
It has been an open secret in Zimbabwe for many years that Emmerson Mnangagwa would like to succeed Robert Mugabe as president.

Emmerson Mnangagwa received military training in China and Egypt. And Mr Mugabe has been almost toying with his emotions - one day promoting him to senior positions in both the ruling Zanu-PF party and the government, raising speculation that Mr Mnangagwa is the "heir apparent" but later demoting him, after he possibly displayed his ambitions a bit too openly.
He helped direct Zimbabwe's 1970s war of independence and later became the country's spymaster during the 1980s civil conflict.
He is currently minister of rural housing, a relative backwater after spells as minister of national security and speaker of parliament.
In 2005, he also lost his post as Zanu-PF secretary for administration, which had enabled him to place his supporters in key party positions.
This followed reports that Mr Mnangagwa, 60, had been campaigning too hard for the post of vice-president, backed by his close ally, former Information Minister Jonathan Moyo.
Mr Mugabe sacked Mr Moyo from both party and government but Mr Mnangagwa seems to be back in the president's good books.
The president has instead reportedly become alarmed at the activities of Joyce Mujuru, who got the vice-president's job, and her powerful husband, former army chief Solomon Mujuru.
Congo connection
Before his 2005 demotion, Mr Mnangagwa was seen as "the architect of the commercial activities of Zanu-PF", according to a UN report in 2001.
This largely related to the operations of the Zimbabwean army and businessmen in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Zimbabwean troops intervened on the DR Congo conflict on the side of the government and, like other countries, it was accused of using the conflict to loot some of its rich natural resources, such as diamonds, gold and other minerals.
But despite his money-raising role, Mr Mnangagwa, a lawyer who grew up in Zambia, is not well-loved by the rank and file of his own party.
One veteran of Zimbabwe's war of independence, who worked with him for many years, puts it simply: "He's a very cruel man, very cruel."
Another Zanu-PF official poses an interesting question when asked about Mr Mnangagwa's prospects: "You think Mugabe is bad but have you thought that whoever comes after him could be even worse?"
The opposition candidate who defeated Mr Mnangagwa in the 2000 parliamentary campaign in Kwekwe Central, Blessing Chebundo, would also agree that his rival is not a man of peace.
During a bitter campaign, Mr Chibundo escaped death by a whisker when the Zanu-PF youths who had abducted him and doused him with petrol were unable to light a match.
Mr Mnangagwa's fearsome reputation was made during the civil war which broke out after independence between Mugabe's Zanu party and the Zapu of Joshua Nkomo.
He was tortured severely resulting in him losing his sense of hearing in one ear
Emmerson Mnangagwa's official profileAs National Security Minister, Mr Mnangagwa was in charge of the Central Intelligence Organisation, CIO, which worked hand in glove with the army to suppress Zapu.
Thousands of innocent civilians - mainly ethnic Ndebeles, seen as Zapu supporters - were killed before the two parties merged to form Zanu-PF.
Among countless other atrocities, villagers were forced at gun-point to dance on the freshly-dug graves of their relatives and chant pro-Mugabe slogans.
Despite the 1987 Unity Accord, the wounds are still painful and many party officials, not to mention voters, in Matabeleland would be reluctant to support a Mnangagwa presidential campaign.
School of Ideology
Mr Mnangagwa, though does enjoy the support of many of the war veterans who led the campaign of violence against the white farmers and the opposition from 2000.

Robert Mugabe has promoted and then demoted Mnangagwa. They remember him as one of the men who, following his military training in China and Egypt, directed the 1970s fight for independence.
He also attended the School of Ideology, run by the Chinese Communist Party.
On his official profile, Mr Mnangagwa says he was the victim of state violence after being arrested by the white-minority government in the former Rhodesia in 1965, after he helped blow up a train near Fort Victoria (now Masvingo).
"He was tortured severely resulting in him losing his sense of hearing in one ear," the profile says.
"Part of the torture techniques involved being hanged with his feet on the ceiling and the head down. The severity of the torture made him unconscious for days."
As he was under 21 at the time, he was not executed but instead sentenced to 10 years in prison.
He was born in the central region of Zvishavane and is from the Karanga sub-group of Zimbabwe's majority Shonas.
The Karangas are the largest Shona group and some feel it is their turn for power, following 27 years of domination by Mr Mugabe's Zezuru group.




Leaders of Zimbabwe's ruling Zanu-PF are expected to meet on Friday to decide whether President Robert Mugabe should stand for re-election next year.
Mr Mugabe has made it clear he wants to remain in office.
But he is under increasing pressure from Zanu-PF factions to stand down to end the political and economic crisis.
On Thursday, southern African leaders agreed that South African President Thabo Mbeki should try to promote political dialogue inside Zimbabwe.
In their communique, the leaders expressed solidarity with Mr Mugabe, urged western countries to lift sanctions and called on the UK to pay for land reform.
Correspondents say this kind of language would have been music to Mr Mugabe's ears.
The opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is disappointed with the outcome of the meeting - it says the problems are Mr Mugabe's economic mismanagement and human rights abuses.

The problem with these African leaders is that they fear Mugabe and employ a quiet diplomacy
Henry, Harare
Send us your comments

The European Union and US sanctions are a travel ban and an assets freeze on the Mr Mugabe and his close allies, yet Mr Mugabe blames them for causing Zimbabwe's economic woes.
Decision day
BBC Southern Africa correspondent Peter Biles say that behind the scenes, the issue everyone is talking about is Robert Mugabe's future.
The man who has led Zimbabwe for nearly 27 years has never looked as isolated as he is at present, our correspondent says.
Friday's meeting of Zanu-PF's Central Committee brings together about 200 of the ruling party's most important decision-makers.
In the knowledge that presidential elections are due a year from now, there is intense lobbying going on within Zanu-PF, he says.

Summit disappoints critics
Profile: Emmerson Mnangagwa
Profile: The Mujuru couple

President Mugabe has said he wants to remain in power.
But he may only have support from around a third of the membership of his party's Central Committee, says the BBC's Peter Biles.
There are two opposing factions. One is led by the former armed forces commander, Solomon Mujuru, and his wife Joyce, who is the country's vice-president.
The other is headed by Emmerson Mnangagwa, a former security minister.
Both sides would like to see Mr Mugabe step aside, not least because under his leadership, Zimbabwe's economy is now out of control.
But it is not clear if anyone will stand up and directly challenge Mr Mugabe.


Thursday, March 29, 2007


A summit of 14 southern African nations has agreed that South African President Thabo Mbeki should try to mediate in the political crisis in Zimbabwe.
Mr Mbeki will aim to formally arrange talks between Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe and the opposition.
The meeting also called on the West to drop sanctions and appealed to Britain to "honour its commitments" to fund land reforms in its former colony.
The Tanzania summit came amid rising concern about the Zimbabwe crisis.
Political violence is increasing in the country, which is beset by unemployment and poverty, and suffers the world's highest inflation - 1,700% a year.
Back from brink
Diplomats said before the summit that the leaders would tell President Mugabe that he should not stand for re-election next year, but there has been no word on whether they did so during their closed-door meeting.
Zimbabwe is under assault... it is under assault from Western countries that have imposed illegal sanctions on it
George Charamba Presidential spokesman
The decision had been taken to promote dialogue, Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete said at the end of the summit of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
"Of course the appeal to parties is to be co-operative and give this initiative a chance, also for the parties to exercise restraint and avoid anything that's going to inflame the situation," Mr Kikweti told a news conference.
The summit, which was attended by Mr Mbeki and Mr Mugabe, echoed the demands of the Zimbabwean government for all sanctions against the country to be lifted.
Britain and other Western countries have imposed targeted sanctions, including a travel ban on Mr Mugabe and his circle.
The meeting's outcome will probably disappoint the opposition, which had hoped for a much tougher line, says the BBC's Peter Greste in Dar es Salaam.
Their resolution also falls far short of the action urged by the US, which had called on the SADC summit to hold Mr Mugabe to account "for his misrule, not only over the last few weeks but over the last few years".
Amid the rising tension, Zimbabwean police on Wednesday cracked down further on the opposition.

Mugabe's hold over Africa
Media urges pressure

The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) said leader Morgan Tsvangirai was held for several hours after Wednesday's police raid on the party's headquarters in Harare.
Police denied he was among those arrested.
The policy-making body of Mr Mugabe's Zanu-PF is due to meet on Friday to decide whether to postpone the elections and, if not, who its candidate will be.
Speaking to the BBC as the summit got under way, Mr Mugabe's spokesman, George Charamba, said the president would stay for as long as he had the popular vote.

The meeting between southern Africa's leaders is long overdue. Silent diplomacy has no future for Zimbabwe
Patrick Adar, Kampala
Send us your comments

The pressure for change, he said, was coming from the US and Europe, and Zimbabwe was hoping for the support of other African nations.
"Our expectations are very, very simple: to recognise that Zimbabwe is under assault... it is under assault from Western countries that have imposed illegal sanctions on it," Mr Charamba said.
Mr Mugabe, who has governed Zimbabwe since its independence in 1980, has blamed the opposition for the recent violence, accusing it of staging attacks.
He has also dismissed complaints from the West about human rights abuses and political oppression as the whining of old colonists.
The SADC summit also discussed the violence in DR Congo.



Iran crisis reflects growing isolation.
By Sadeq Saba BBC World Service Iran analyst.

The UK and Iran are in a diplomatic stand-off over the incident. The capture of 15 British Royal Navy personnel by Iranian forces in the Gulf comes at a time when Tehran feels it is under unprecedented international pressure.
The country is diplomatically isolated and feels under a constant and building US military threat.
Earlier this month the UN Security Council passed a resolution against Iran over its nuclear programme.
Iranian diplomats worked very hard to convince some members of the council, such as South Africa, Indonesia and Qatar, to support Tehran's case.
But it failed, and the vote in favour of the resolution was unanimous, further convincing the Iranian leadership that they have few friends left at the UN and that diplomacy is not working in their favour.
Siege mentality
Iran is now also militarily encircled by the US forces. American troops are based in almost every country bordering Iran - Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan and Azerbaijan.
The US Navy has been conducting a series of exercises in the Gulf - the biggest war games in the area since the invasion of Iraq four years ago.
Hardliners are arguing that any release of the British sailors should be conditional on the release of five Iranians held by the US The sense of being under siege is compounded by the US military's detention in January in Iraq of five Iranians.
Tehran says they are diplomats but the US says the men are members of the Revolutionary Guards with a mission to support Iraqi insurgents.
There has been no consular access to them, no charges brought against them and no information about where they are being kept and under what conditions.
And in December a former Iranian deputy defence minister disappeared in Turkey. Some Western media reported that he had defected to the West.
But the Iranian government and his family say he was abducted by the US or Israel.
All these events and pressures have created a siege mentality in Tehran.
Act of desperation?
It was in this setting that Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei recently made a significant statement.

The UN Security Council has voted against Iran on the nuclear issue. He said that so far Iran had acted legally to defend what it saw as its right to pursue a nuclear programme.
He went on to say that because the international community had responded with "illegal acts" - by which he meant the Security Council resolutions - Iran itself would from now on feel justified in acting illegally.
Ayatollah Khamenei emphasised that Iran would use any means available to it to defend itself.
It is not clear whether the capture of the British sailors and marines was premeditated or not, but the ayatollah's comments could have given a green light to Revolutionary Guards to seize them.
If it was premeditated, the capture could be interpreted as an act of desperation by a government which feels isolated and threatened.
President missing
Iran officially says there is no connection between the detention of the British personnel and its own grievances.
But some hardline elements make a link between their release and other issues.

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has faced domestic criticism. The Iranian authorities themselves are under mounting pressure domestically to ensure the release of the five Iranians held by the US military in Iraq, and hardliners are arguing that any release of the British sailors should be conditional on the release of the Iranians.
Noticeable by his absence in all this is Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
From the Iranian side, the crisis has been managed by the country's Supreme National Security Council, the highest body dealing with such important matters.
Its decisions are approved by Ayatollah Khamenei, and all senior officials take part in its meetings.
President Ahmadinejad's silence may suggest that the clerical leadership is deliberately keeping him out of this matter in order to ensure that situation is not inflamed by his usual hardline rhetoric.



Experts say it is unlikely the workers will be found alive. Six construction workers are feared to have died after a subway tunnel being built for the 2008 Beijing Olympics collapsed on top of them.
Rescuers are searching for the six, but experts have told Chinese media the chances of saving them are fading.
The tunnel, in the Haidian university district of north-west Beijing, caved in early on Wednesday.
The city has undertaken huge building projects for the Olympics, and there have been several accidents.
Floods and cave-ins
China's Xinhua news agency reported that the collapsed section covered an area of about 20 square metres (215 square feet) and was about 11m (36ft) deep.
Officials have begun an investigation into the cause of the collapse, Xinhua said.
The station where the cave-in happened will be part of a line crossing northern Beijing, with a stop at the Olympic Village.
The 25km (15-mile) line has experienced several floods and cave-ins in the past - with workers killed in a collapse last June.




Woolmer's death has been the source of feverish speculation. Jamaican police have denied reports that a second post-mortem is to be carried out on murdered Pakistan cricket coach Bob Woolmer.
Newspapers had claimed more tests were needed to confirm Woolmer was strangled - but deputy police chief Mark Shields said the cause of death was settled.
Woolmer was found strangled in his hotel room on 18 March, one day after Pakistan's surprise loss to Ireland.
Police say they do not yet have any suspects in the case.
'Unhealthy and unhelpful'
Mr Shields told India's New Delhi Television: "The reality is that we have a cause of death and we have an investigation to a murder."
He said a second examination would "detract from the main track of inquiry".

Mr Shields urged visitors to Woolmer's hotel to contact police.
"If there was going to be a second post-mortem it could only be on two counts - if ordered by the coroner, but he has not done that, or secondly if we had a suspect in custody.
"But since we have no-one in custody, I don't know where that came from. It is another piece of unhealthy and unhelpful speculation."
He also denied reports that police were seeking three Pakistani men, said to have fled the Caribbean on the day of the murder.
Earlier, Mr Shields had urged people who had visited Kingston's Pegasus hotel in the 72 hours before Woolmer's death to get in touch.
Police are continuing to review CCTV footage from the hotel in the hope of identifying a suspect.
They are also examining the hard drive of Woolmer's computer for anything which might establish a motive for the murder.
Detectives believe Woolmer probably knew his killer - or killers - as there were no signs of forced entry into his room and none of his belongings had been stolen.
There has been speculation that the murder is connected to match-fixing allegations which have haunted cricket for the past decade.



People see the lion's death a bad omen for President Biya. Cameroon's wildlife minister has encouraged people to pay their last respects to the country's most famous lion, named Paul after the president.
The lion died in Mvog Beti zoo in the capital, Yaounde, on Saturday.
Wildlife Minister Elvis Ngolle Ngolle said Paul's body has been preserved and the public is now able to visit it.
A BBC correspondent says people see the death as a bad omen for President Paul Biya whose party is seeking to extend his time in office beyond 2011.
This week, parliament began debating a bill to amend the constitution.
The president is elected for seven years and, following a 1996 amendment, can only serve two terms.
Mr Biya has ruled Cameroon for 24 years and will be about 78 when his current term expires in 2011.
The BBC's Randy Joe Sa'ah in Yaounde says Paul and his mate were named Paul and Chantal after the presidential couple.

Chantel has been Paul's partner for a long time.
Last Thursday, Mr Ngole Ngole gave the zoo a cash donation for the treatment of the sick lion.
But despite these efforts the lion died two days later from kidney problems.
The minister said his illness is thought to be related to the lion's earlier castration.
That operation was performed after a lioness he mated with gave birth to deformed cubs, the minister said.



The solar power plant is in one of Europe's sunniest areas. Portugal has inaugurated what it says is the world's most powerful solar power plant.
The array of electricity-generating solar panels covers about 60 hectares (150 acres) in one of Europe's sunniest areas in southern Portugal.
Officials say the plant should produce enough energy to supply 8,000 homes.
The plant is part of Portugal's efforts to cut its reliance on imported fuel and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases that add to global warming.
The plant is also meant to bring development and jobs to the Alentejo region 200km (125 miles) southeast of Lisbon, a poor area traditionally dominated by cork and olive production.
Renewable energy drive
The 11-megawatt plant has 52,000 photovoltaic modules, which will produce 20 gigawatt hours of power each year.
Burning fossil fuels to generate the same amount of energy would result in 30,000 tons of greenhouse gases being emitted over the course of a year.
"This project is successful because Portugal's sunshine is plentiful, the solar power technology is proven [and] government policies are supportive," said Kevin Walsh of Renewable Energy GE, which built the project.
The facility was designed by PowerLight which will also operates and maintains it.
Portugal is developing wind, solar and wave power projects as part of a plan to invest $10bn (£5bn) in renewable energy over the next five years.
Prime Minister Jose Socrates has said he wants 45% of Portugal's power consumption to come from renewable energy by 2010.



The pilots of a Chilean passenger jet reported seeing flaming debris fall past their aircraft as it approached the airport at Auckland, New Zealand.
Lan airline said the captain "made visual contact with incandescent fragments several kilometres away".
New Zealand and Australian media suggested the debris was from a Russian satellite expected to enter the atmosphere later in the day.
But the US space agency Nasa said it was more likely to have been meteors.
'40 second margin'
The Lan Airbus A340 had just entered New Zealand airspace as it approached Auckland's airport when the debris shot by.
The pilots reported the near-miss to air traffic controllers, reportedly saying the noise of the debris breaking the sound barrier could be heard above the roar of his aircraft's engines.
The New Zealand Herald newspaper calculated the debris missed the jet by a margin of 40 seconds.
The plane landed safely and continued to its final destination in Sydney, Australia, a short while later.
Initial media reports in New Zealand said the debris was thought to be the remains of a Russian satellite.
New Zealand air traffic control officials had been warned by Russian authorities that a spacecraft was due to fall into the Pacific Ocean on Wednesday.
But the debris was spotted by the pilots 12 hours earlier than the time advised by the Russians.
An orbital debris expert at Nasa told Associated Press news agency that he had checked with the Russians and that their vessel - a spacecraft resupplying the International Space Station - had fired its re-entry rockets 12 hours after the Chileans reported the near miss.
The Nasa expert, Nicholas Johnson, said no other space junk was expected to be re-entering atmosphere at that time so the pilots probably saw a meteor.




A summit of southern African countries is getting under way in Tanzania, with the crisis in Zimbabwe at the top of its agenda.
Diplomats say leaders will tell Robert Mugabe that he should not stand for re-election in Zimbabwe next year.
The meeting comes a day after police in Zimbabwe detained opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai for a few hours.
Police denied Mr Tsvangirai was among those arrested when they raided the offices of his opposition party.
Police cordoned off the Harare headquarters of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) ahead of a planned news conference by Mr Tsvangirai.
He had been expected to talk about the political violence in the country. Earlier this month he was allegedly beaten in police custody following his arrest at a banned rally.
International criticism
The summit brings together the 14-nation Southern African Development Community (SADC).
Talks are also expected to address recent violence in the capital of DR Congo, Kinshasa.

Mugabe's hold over Africa
Media urges pressure
Zimbabwe's president will be told in very plain terms, diplomats say, that the region cannot afford to see the situation continue, let alone deteriorate into a civil war that could engulf its neighbours.
The BBC's Peter Greste in Dar es Salaam says Mr Mugabe has dismissed such complaints from the West in the past and might find it much harder to ignore those from his neighbours.
However, much of the debate will be behind closed doors.
Most African leaders have been reluctant to publicly criticise Mr Mugabe, who is still seen be many as a hero of the fight against colonial rule.
However, there has been some change in tone following the assault on Mr Tsvangirai and other opposition activists.
Zambia's President Levy Mwanawasa compared Zimbabwe to the Titanic.

The meeting between Southern Africa's leaders is long overdue. Silent diplomacy has no future for Zimbabwe
Patrick Adar, Kampala
Send us your comments
Richard Dowden, director of the UK's Royal African Society, told the BBC's Today programme that the SADC leaders might gently suggest that Mr Mugabe does not stand again in elections due next year.
But he says the people who really matter are those in his Zanu-PF party.
The policy-making body of his Zanu-PF party is due to meet on Friday to decide whether to postpone the elections and, if not, who its candidate will be.
Two party heavyweights might block Mr Mugabe's bid to stand again, Mr Dowden says.
Election decision?
As Mr Mugabe arrived in Tanzania on Wednesday night, the US state department expressed concern about Mr Tsvangirai and urged the SADC summit to hold Mr Mugabe to account "for his misrule, not only over the last few weeks but over the last few years".

The police say these guns and explosives belonged to the opposition. Mr Mugabe has blamed the opposition for the recent violence, accusing it of staging attacks.
The police on Wednesday exhibited explosives and guns, they say belonged to opposition activists.
He has dismissed complaints from the West about human rights abuses and political oppression as the whining of old colonists.
In addition to the political conflict, Zimbabweans are grappling with the world's highest inflation - 1,700% a year - while unemployment and poverty are widespread.
Mr Mugabe has governed Zimbabwe since its independence in 1980.



Nigeria buries tanker fire victims.
By Senan Murray BBC News, Katugal, Nigeria.

Lami Dutse moves around her 27-year-old-son, Danasabe, fanning his badly burnt legs.
Danasabe Dutse's legs were badly burnt when his trousers caught fire"Thank God! Thank God!" she says with tears of joy in her eyes.
Danasabe, 27, is sitting just a few metres from a mass grave where the charred bodies of nearly 100 of his friends and other villagers are buried.
He is among about 20 survivors of a petrol tanker explosion in which at least 98 people were burnt alive in Katugal village in north-western Nigeria in Kaduna state.
The tanker was carrying 33,000 litres of petrol when it crashed at a bend on the road near the village, about 150km (93 miles) north of the capital Abuja.
Ali Peter, who helped with the mass burial, thinks the casualty figure could be as high as 115.
He says the victims were "young men, women and even little children."
'Big explosion'
The burnt carcass of the petrol tanker lies on its side a few yards across the road from where Danasabe sits.
Around the burnt tanker are charred remains of motorcycles, buckets and other containers the villagers used to scoop the fuel.
Many of the villagers are seen in small groups discussing the tragedy in hushed tones.

Nearly 100 of the victims were buried in a mass grave"There was a big explosion and I found myself drenched in petrol and my trousers caught on fire," Danasabe told the BBC News website.
"The explosion hit me as I made to pass near the crashed tanker which was lying in my way. So, I started rolling on the ground, trying to pull off the burning trousers.
"I did manage to get the trousers off eventually, but as you can see, these were the wounds I sustained.
"I consider myself very, very lucky. Some of my friends weren't as lucky as you can see," he says gesturing towards the shallow grave a few yards away.
'Greed and poverty'
Aminu Bako, an eyewitness who also helped with the hurried burial of the victims blames the accident on greed and poverty.
"It's not the driver's fault at all. It's largely due to greed and poverty. Things like this have been happening in the southern part of the country and we have seen them on TV.

People were taking fuel from the crashed tanker when it exploded. "Yet people don't seem to fear that it could happen again. It suggests to me that poverty is a lot hotter than petrol explosions."
Another eyewitness Bitrus Yohanna says it was not the villagers' fault.
"Look, the villagers did not tip the tanker over. They don't even own cars. They simply saw petrol wasting and thought it was a good idea to collect it and make some money."
But John Dogo who is a vigilante leader in the village disagrees. He says he tried to stop the villagers from going near the tanker, but they refused.
'Balls of fire'
"I was still calling on them to leave the scene when the tanker exploded.
"I saw that there were flying balls of fire and when they landed on a person, that person was gone.

Nearby motorcycles were completely burnt out in the fire. "The fire was so fierce that you dared not come close."
Danjuma Elisha, Kaduna State commander of the Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps led emergency operations at the scene.
He says the tragedy was a high price for what the villagers thought was free petrol.
"People came and started scooping free fuel, but as it turned out, that fuel was not free at all.
"The real price is this mass grave where 98 people are buried. People should learn from what has happened."
But in Nigeria, Africa's largest oil producer, it is difficult to learn from such accidents. Fuel shortages are commonplace due to corruption, poor management and infrastructure problems.
When pipelines in the south pass through poor communities, they are often broken so that the fuel can be stolen.



South Africa 212-9 bt Sri Lanka 209 by one wicket
By Sam Lyon.

Malinga produced heroics to mark a thrilling climax in Guyana.
Sri Lanka's Lasith Malinga became the first bowler to take four wickets in four balls in international cricket but it was all in vain as South Africa won.
Jacques Kallis's 86 saw South Africa to a last-gasp one-wicket win in the Super 8 match at the Cricket World Cup.
Set 210 to win, the Proteas looked to be cruising as Kallis built on Graeme Smith's 59 to take them to 206-5.
Malinga's inspired spell took Sri Lanka to the brink of victory, before Robin Peterson hit the winning runs.
It was a sensational ending to the match at the new Providence Stadium as Malinga brought Sri Lanka back from the brink to give them hope with some superb full-length bowling.
But his efforts proved fruitless in the end, with his opposite number Charl Langeveldt's 5-39 proving the decisive figures as Sri Lanka were skittled out for 209.
The seamer struck late in the innings, just as Arnold and Dilshan were looking to open up, and ensured Sri Lanka fell 20-30 runs short of their ideal target.

That sudden burst by Malinga is the moment of this World Cup so far

Their total was still more than Sri Lanka, who had won the toss, might have hoped for at one stage, though, after Langeveldt and Makhaya Ntini had reduced them to 98-5.
Upul Tharanga was the first to go, edging a typical Ntini delivery, angled across the stumps, to Justin Kemp at first slip, before Sanath Jayasuriya's brief flurry of 26 from 27 balls ended when he sent a thick edge to Jacques Kallis at point off Langeveldt.
Langeveldt was making his case to replace Shaun Pollock as the Proteas' new-ball bowler, and he struck again to force a leading edge off Mahela Jayawardene to AB de Villiers at mid-off.
Kumar Sangakkara, ranked fourth in the world ODI rankings, briefly provided some resistance but he gloved an Andrew Hall bouncer behind for 28.

44.5 overS: Pollock b 13
44.6 overs: Hall c Tharanga 0
46.1 overs: Kallis c Sangakkara 86
46.2 overs: Makhaya Ntini b Malinga 0

And when he was followed back into the hutch by Chamara Silva (9) thanks to Herschelle Gibbs' diving run-out - which was indicative of a fabulous display in the field for South Africa - Sri Lanka looked in trouble.
The Proteas did not account for Dilshan and Russel Arnold, though.
Helped by Smith's decision to bowl himself and Peterson in tandem during the middle overs, the pair frustrated their opponents for over 21 overs.
Dilshan finally fell in the 46th over, top edging Ntini to deep backward square, for 58 and Langeveldt returned to help clean up the tail with three wickets in a maiden 49th over.
Farveez Maharoof, Chaminda Vaas and then Arnold, who made his 50 off 73 balls, all holed out in the deep, with Muralitharan the last man out, run out by Pollock's fine throw.
In 44 one-day matches before this game, the two teams shared 21 wins apiece, with eight wins each on neutral ground, and another tight encounter duly ensued despite Smith's class up front for South Africa.
The opener was brutal and clever in equal measure as he made a mockery of the seemingly slow pitch with a series of boundaries on both sides of the wicket, building the Proteas' recovery after AB de Villiers had been bowled in the first over by a swinging Chaminda Vaas delivery.

Charl Langeveldt celebrates his five-wicket haul in Guyana
The skipper combined brilliantly with Kallis to take the score to 95-1 before Muttiah Muralitharan (3-39) drew him out of his crease and he was stumped.
Another tidy partnership was ended by the master spinner in the 33rd over when he caught Gibbs off his own bowling for a well made 33 and then trapped Mark Boucher lbw next ball.
And, with spin operating at both ends, Jayasuriya had Kemp stumped by a matter of inches for five to cause some wobbles in the South Africa dressing room.
But Kallis, who survived the most difficult of caught-and-bowled chances off Malinga when on 75, dug deep despite obvious cramp to steady the ship before the sensational late fireworks.
Malinga (4-54) yorked Pollock (13) and had Hall caught at cover in successive balls at the end of his eighth over, and returned to clean up Kallis for his hat-trick and then Ntini next ball.
It was the first time in international cricket a player had taken four wickets in four balls and all of a sudden the impossible seemed possible.
But Langeveldt negotiated nine balls before Peterson, who survived another beauty from Malinga that missed his stumps by a whisker, edged the winning runs to bring relief to the Proteas line-up.
The win takes South Africa up to second in the Super 8 table behind Australia and means they already have an excellent chance of qualifying for the semi-finals.
Immediately after the match it was announced Charl Langeveldt had won the Man of the Match award for his five wicket haul but the International Cricket Council later apologised to the Sri Lanka management team to say there had been a communication error and Lasith Malinga should have been jointly awarded the accolade.